Pain - tooth or teeth
A toothache may occur because of:
A toothache is often the result of dental cavities (tooth decay) or an infection or irritation of the tooth. Tooth decay is often caused by poor dental hygiene. It may also be partly inherited. In some cases, toothache may be caused due to grinding teeth or other dental trauma.
Sometimes, pain that is felt in the tooth is actually due to pain in other parts of the body. This is called referred pain. For example, an earache may sometimes cause tooth pain.
A toothache is pain in or around a tooth.
You can use over-the-counter pain medicine if you can't see your dentist or primary health care provider right away.
Your dentist will first diagnose the source of the pain and recommend treatment. You may be prescribed antibiotics, pain medicines, or other drugs.
Use good oral hygiene to prevent tooth decay. A low-sugar diet is recommended along with regular flossing, brushing with fluoride toothpaste, and regular professional cleaning. Sealants and fluoride applications by the dentist are important for preventing tooth decay. Also, tell your dentist if you think you might grind your teeth.
Your dentist will examine your mouth, teeth, gums, tongue, throat, ears, nose, and neck. You may need dental x-rays. Your dentist may recommend other tests, depending on the suspected cause.
Your dentist will ask questions about your medical history and symptoms, including:
Treatment will depend on the source of the pain. They may include removing and filling cavities, root canal therapy, or extraction of the tooth. If the toothache is related to trauma, such as grinding, your dentist may recommend a special appliance to protect the teeth from wear.
Seek medical care if:
Note: The dentist is an appropriate person to see for most causes of toothaches. However, if the problem is referred pain from another location, you may need to see your primary provider.
Benko KR. Emergency dental procedures. In: Roberts JR, Custalow CB, Thomsen TW, eds. Roberts and Hedges' Clinical Procedures in Emergency Medicine and Acute Care. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 64.
Mehta NR, Scrivani SJ, Spierings ELH. Dental and facial pain. In: Benzon, HT, Rathmell JP, Wu CL, Turk DC, Argoff CE, Hurley RW, eds. Practical Management of Pain. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2014:chap 31.
Travers JB, Travers SP, Christian JM. Physiology of the oral cavity. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 88.
Review Date: 2/5/2018
Reviewed By: Ilona Fotek, DMD, MS, Dental Healing Arts, Jupiter, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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